[Book] Germany: from Revolution to Counter-Revolution



August 3: SPD group in the Reichstag decide by 78 votes to 14 to approve government's requested war loans.

August 4: Outbreak of First World War. SPD in German Parliament votes unanimously for the first War Loans Bill.

December 2: Karl Liebknecht votes alone in the Reichstag against the second War Loans bill.


September 5-8: Left of Second International meet at Zimmerwald, Switzerland, in anti-war conference.


March 8 (February 23 in the old style): The Russian Revolution starts.

April 6-8: USPD formed.

November 7 (October 25): The Bolshevik-led Russian Revolution overturns Provisional Government.

December 22: Start of peace negotiations between Russia and Germany at Brest Litovsk.


January 14: Mass strikes in Austria-Hungary.

January 28: Revolution in Finland - workers' government installed.

January 28: Strikes break out of over one million in Berlin and over 50 other cities.

October 3-4: Prince Max of Baden appointed Chancellor; SPD leaders join the government.

October 16: 5000 join Berlin demonstration of USPD in Berlin to demand overthrow of government.

October 27-8: Naval mutinies break out in Kiel.

October 30: Social Democrat government formed in Austria after mass demonstrations.

October 31: Start of Hungarian revolution.

November 4: Workers' and Soldiers' Council formed at Kiel.

November 7-8: Revolutionary uprising of workers, sailors and soldiers spreads throughout Germany. Bavarian monarchy overthrown; republic declared in Munich, led by SPD-USPD-Peasants' League coalition.

November 9: Republic declared in Berlin; Ebert becomes Chancellor over SPD-USPD coalition. Rosa Luxemburg released from prison.

November 10: Formation of government of the Council of People's Representatives of three SPD members (Ebert, Scheidemann and Landsberg) and three USPD members (Haase, Dittmann and Barth).

November 11: Armistice signed with Allies. Spartacus League formed.

November 12: Council of People's Representatives announces its intention of 'implementing the socialist programme'. Republic declared in Austria.

November 16: Republic declared in Hungary.

November l9-December 17: Strikes start in Saxony and the Ruhr.

December 6: Right wing putsch in Berlin fails.

December 16-20: First national Congress of Workers' and Soldiers' Councils in Berlin decides to call elections for a National Assembly on 19 January 1919 and also calls for immediate socialisation measures.

December 29: Founding congress of KPD opens. USPD members leave the Council of People's Representatives.

December (late): Freikorps troops move into Berlin; increasing clashes with workers.


January 4: Prussian SPD government fires police chief Eichorn, provoking fighting.

January 5: Revolutionary Committee in Berlin; 'Spartacist Uprising'.

January 8: Noske's troops attack workers' positions.

January 12: Last resistance of Berlin workers crushed hy Noske's troops.

January 15: Liebknecht and Luxemburg murdered by Freikorps.

January 19: Elections for National Assembly. KPD boycott; SPD/USPD get 45% of vote.

February 6: National Assembly meets at Weimar.

February 11: Ebert elected President of the Republic.

February 13: Scheidemann forms first Weimar coalition government of SPS, DDP (German Democratic Party) and the Centre Party (Catholics).

February 21: USPD prime minister of Bavaria, Eisner, assassinated by monarchist.

March 2-6: Founding Congress of Communist International.

April 7: Bavarian Soviet Republic delared in Munich; eventually crushed (May 1) by Reichswehr and Bavarian Freikorps.

April 8-14: Second national Congress of Workers', Peasants' and Soldiers' Councils meets; supports a bourgeois parliamentary republic.

June 28: Treaty of Versailles.


February 24: NSDAP programme announced by Hitler.

March 13-17: Kapp-Luettwitz putsch; Ebert and ministers flee.

March 24: Noske and army chief Reinhardt resign.

June 6: Reichstag elections. SPD vote drops from 37.9% to 21.6%, USPD rises from 7.6% to 18%. KPD gets 2%.

July: Second Congress of Communist International.

October: Halle Congress of USPD; majority agrees to join with KPD as part of Communist International.


March 27: 'March Action' called by KPD.

July 26-9: Hitler becomes leader of Nazis.


January 10: Germany defaults on reparations.

January 11-12: French and Belgian armies occupy the Ruhr. Government urges 'passive resistance'.

September: Hyper-inflation reaches peak. Mass strikes.

September 26: State of Emergency in Bavaria.

September 27: State of Emergency throughout Germany declared by Ebert.

October 23: Abortive Hamburg rising.

October 29: Suppression of Socialist/Communist governments in Saxony ancl Thuringia.

November 2: SPD ministers resign.

November 8-9: Hitler's Munich putsch.


May 4: Second Reichstag elections.

December 7: Third Reichstag elections.


February 28: Ebert dies.

April 27: Hindenburg elected President.


May 20: Fourth Reichstag elections; Nazis only get 12 seats out of 474; SDP and KPD get 42% of vote.


September 14: Fifth Reichstag elections; Nazis get 107 seats, SPD 143, KPD 77.


July: Financial crisis.


April 20: Hindenburg re-elected President.

April 13: SA and Nazi para-military groups suppressed.

May 30: Von Papen appointed Chancellor.

June 17: SA ban lifted.

July 20: Von Papen deposes Prussian government.

July 31:Sixth Reichstag elections; Nazis get 230 seats, SPD 133, KPD 89.

November 6: Seventh Reichstag elections; Nazis get 196 seats (33%), SPD/KPD 221 (37%).

November 17: Von Papen resigns.


January 30: Hitler appointed Chancellor.

February 27: Reichstag fire.

February 28: Mass arrests of KPD members and occupation of KPD premises.

March 5: Eighth Reichstag elections; Nazis get 288 seats, SPD/KPD 201.

March 6: KPD banned.

March 23: Enabling Act passed through Reichstag giving Hitler dictatorial powers.

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