On October 9th, 1967 Ernesto “Che” Guevara was killed by the Bolivian army, backed by the United States. Fifty years later, Guevara remains one of the most popular revolutionaries amongst workers and youth around the world. To commemorate the figure of Che, but also, and most importantly, to understand the relevance of his life and ideas to today's struggles, we are publishing an edited version of an article written for the Italian Marxists’ theoretical magazine ten years ago on the 40th anniversary of his death.

This is the text of an essay presented at the Conference on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of Pensamiento Crítico (Critical Thought) magazine which took place in Havana on February 21, 2017. Pensamiento Crítico was a monthly magazine published in Cuba from 1967 until 1971. Edited by Fernando Martínez Heredia (1939-2017), the magazine was part of an open discussion about Marxism within the Cuban revolution, in which many rejected the stale Stalinist approach taken by the Soviet manuals on “marxism-leninism”

At 10.29 pm on Friday, November 25, the Cuban revolutionary leader Fidel Castro died at the age of 90. His brother Raul Castro announced the news to the Cuban population and the world around midnight in a televised speech. His death was not unexpected, as he had been ill for a number of years and had already stepped down from his formal political responsibilities, but still it came as a shock to both friends and enemies.

On the 88th anniversary of the birth of Che Guevara we recommend our readers to read or re-read this article written 11 years ago about the life and ideas of Che.

The US embargo and constant imperialist aggression for over 55 years against Cuba have failed in the aim of destabilizing the Cuban government. Instead, the Cuban people have shown remarkable courage and steadfastness in resisting all of the maneuvers of American imperialism and in defending the numerous gains of Cuban revolution—gains ranging from Cuba's often praised medical system, to the literacy campaigns of the revolution's early days, and, of course, the planned economy that made them possible.

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