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February 1989 Caracazo uprising and massacre under President Carlos Andres Perez after years of IMF austerity measures
Feb 4 1992 Lt. Col. Hugo Chavez leads failed coup against Perez and is imprisoned.
1994 Chavez freed from prison.
Dec 6 1998 Chavez elected President on anti-poverty, anti-corruption platform. Holds referendums approving new Bolivarian Constitution, revamps courts and congress.
July 2000 Chavez convincingly wins six-year term as President.
Nov 2001 Decrees 49 economic laws, ranging from oil to agriculture, using enabling law passed by pro-Chavez legislature
Dec 10 The corrupt Venezuelan Workers' Confederation (CTV) and Fedecamaras (Venezuelan Chamber of Commerce) stage lockout
Feb 25 2002 Chávez appoints new directors to PDVSA, the state oil company
April 9 CTV and Fedecamaras declare lockout to cause maximum disruption; plans to organise a coup against Chávez
April 11 Opposition and Chávez supporters organise demonstrations. 13 die in clashes and 100 wounded. Opposition media campaign blames Chávez supporters and urges his removal. Rightwing military chiefs backed by Washington stage a coup against Chávez.
April 12 Pedro Carmona, a wealthy businessman, is installed as President. Chávez refuses to reign and is taken to a secret location. National Assembly dissolved.
April 13 The masses take to the streets and coup collapses ignominiously.
August 11 The Supreme Court acquits four senior military officers who led the coup.
Dec 2002 - January 2003 Bosses' lockout to destablise the country, but defeated by workers' opposition.
2003 New democratic trade union federation (UNT) formed.
August 15 2004 Chávez wins national referendum on his Presidency; the Opposition are in disarray.
October 31 Bolivarian candidates win federal and local elections.
Jan 2005 Venepal, the paper company, is nationalised.
Jan 31 Chávez announces the need to transcend capitalism and build socialism.
July 18 All closed businesses to be reopened under workers' control.
July 27 Opinion poll gives Chavez 71.8% approval.
August 10 Chávez's supporters win 80% of city and district council seats.