The latest discovery of a fossil skull in Kenya, more than three million years old, once again demonstrates the complex evolution of humankind. The following article examines the evidence and sees how it fits into the ideas of human origin formulated by Frederick Engels more than 100 years ago.

We have received quite a few e-mails from our subscribers asking about the attitude of Marxists to religion, relating not only to Marxism and Christianity, but also to Islam. For example, we have received several communications from sympathetic people who support liberation theology, in the Philippines. We are also in contact with groups who describe themselves as Islamic Marxists. This is clearly an interesting and important question, which deserves serious treatment. As an initial contribution, we are publishing an article by Alan Woods which is actually based on his replies to such letters.

Alan Woods has written an extra chapter to his book on the History of Philosophy dealing with the historical development of Indian and Islamic philosophy. He separates out the progressive from the reactionary elements, and also highlights the great contribution of both to philosophical thinking on a world level.

We are publishing the first of what will be a series of Marxist study guides. The purpose is to provide a basic explanation of the fundamental ideas of Marxism with a guide to further reading and points to help organise discussion groups around these ideas. We are starting with dialectical materialism, the philosophy of Marxism.

For a long period in his life Wilhelm Reich considered himself a Marxist. He applied the scientific method of Marxism to his research into Psychoanalysis and this led him to break with many of the theories of Freud. At one stage he came close to Trotsky, but then drifted away. Under intense persecution he eventually broke with Marxism and even revised some of his earlier brilliant insights. Alessandro D'Aloia looks at the rise and fall of Reich.

We are pleased to publish an interesting document written by a Mexican comrade on the subject of dialectical materialism and mathematics (calculus). Juan Ortiz, who is a student of mathematics at the Mexican National University, has developed what Hegel, Marx, Engels and Trotsky wrote on the subject. Although the detailed mathematical exposition may be beyond the grasp of many laymen, we think it very important to develop the fundamentals of Marxist philosophy in a detailed way. Unfortunately, Juan’s text is so far only available in Spanish.

Trotsky's 'ABC of Materialist Dialectics' is a brilliant short explanation of Marxist philosophy. It was written as part of a defence of Marxism against a middle class revisionist tendency in the American Trotskyist movement in the late 1930s, which attempted to challenge its basic principles. As opposed to pragmatism and empiricism, Trotsky defended dialectical materialism as a richer, fuller, more comprehensive view of society and life in general. Reprinted in 1994 with a new introduction by Rob Sewell and a short addition summary of the basic points of dialectical materialism by John Pickard.

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