A key historical document that analyses the important question of "proletarian bonapartism", i.e. Stalinism, in the former colonial countries. Previously it was available in an edited version. Here we reproduce the full text. It explains the roots of the Chinese revolution and why the Maoist regime came into conflict with the Soviet Union, and also the nature of several similar regimes that came into being in that period. It was also the basis for the expulsion of Ted Grant and his followers from Mandel's so-called Unified Secretariat of the Fourth International.
Read the full article in the Ted Grant Archive.